Category Archives: Curiosity

Evidence from Curiosity rover shows Mars once had oxygen-rich atmosphere

Mars’ atmosphere is thin, dry, and cold now, but it used to be thicker and contained a lot more oxygen. Image Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

Mars’ atmosphere is thin, dry and cold now, but it used to be thicker and contained a lot more oxygen. Image Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

Mars’ atmosphere is thin and cold, composed primarily of carbon dioxide along with other trace gases and some water vapour. Evidence has continued to mount, however, that the rarified atmosphere we see today once used to be much thicker and possibly warmer, making it potentially more life-friendly early on. Just how thick and how warm is still a subject of much debate, but there is also another interesting aspect to all of this: New evidence from the Curiosity rover has shown that the Martian atmosphere also used to have a lot more oxygen in it than it does now. Today, only very small traces of oxygen can be found, as opposed to Earth’s oxygen-rich atmosphere. So what does this mean? Could there be biological implications?

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Image Gallery: Delicate rock formations on Naukluft Plateau

Long, spindly and delicate rock formations created by blowing sand. Photo Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Long, spindly and delicate rock formations created by blowing sand. Click image for larger version. Photo Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

This image from the Curiosity rover on sol 1294 shows some very delicate rock formations on Naukluft Plateau, shaped by blowing Martian sand. The thin atmosphere and lower gravity also help in the formation of such spindly protrusions. Similar ones have also been seen before by the rover.

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Welcome to Bagnold: Curiosity rover reaches massive dark sand dunes near Mount Sharp

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View overlooking part of High Dune, which is covered in smaller sand ripples. The image is white-balanced, to show how the scene would look under more Earth-like conditions. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Since landing in 2012, the Curiosity rover has seen a lot of varied terrain within Gale crater, including ancient riverbed gravel, sandstone and mudstone rock outcrops, sand ripples finely sculpted by the Martian wind, and, of course, Mount Sharp looming above. Now the rover has reached a new type of landform previously only seen from orbit: a field of huge sand dunes.

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NASA’s Curiosity rover approaching active Martian sand dunes after latest drilling completed

The edge of a dark sand dune field can be seen in this white-balanced Curiosity image from sol 1115 (Sep. 25, 2015). Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

The edge of a dark sand dune field can be seen in this white-balanced Curiosity image from sol 1115 (Sep. 25, 2015). Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

Mars is often referred to as a desert world, being bone-dry for the most part, with dust and sand blanketing most of the surface. Some regions are covered in vast sand dunes, reminiscent of deserts like the Sahara on Earth, only much colder. Gale crater, where the Curiosity rover landed in 2012, features extensive dune fields around the base of Mount Sharp, and the rover is now approaching some of them for the first time; their dark color makes them stand out starkly against the surrounding terrain. These dunes are also still active, meaning they are still mobile and shaped by the wind, not just old “fossil” (petrified) dunes which are no longer active.

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Curiosity rover confirms ancient lake(s) in Gale crater on Mars

Sedimentary strata at the base of Mount Sharp as seen at the Kimberly location. The strata in the foreground dip toward Mount Sharp, providing evidence of the former lake-filled depression that used to exist before most of the mountain formed. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

Sedimentary strata at the base of Mount Sharp as seen at the Kimberly location. The strata in the foreground dip toward Mount Sharp, providing evidence of the former lake-filled depression that used to exist before most of the mountain formed. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

Last week there was the exciting news that Mars still has flows of briny water occurring now, and this week there is more water-related news: additional findings from the Curiosity rover that the huge Gale crater was once a lake or series of lakes a long time ago. Curiosity had already found evidence that there used to be shallow lakes and streams in this area, but the new data confirms this and suggests that the lake(s) once filled Gale crater and were long-lasting, explaining the formation of Mount Sharp in the middle of the crater and also providing a potentially habitable environment for life.

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Image Gallery: foothills of Mount Sharp (white-balanced)

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

Another beautiful panoramic image of the foothills of Mount Sharp, taken by Curiosity on Sep. 9, 2015. The mesas, buttes and valleys can be seen in greater detail as the rover keeps getting closer. The image has been white-balanced to show the terrain under more Earth-like lighting conditions. The full-size version of the image is available here.

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Image Gallery: foothills of Mount Sharp

The foothills of Mount Sharp. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/James Sorenson

The foothills of Mount Sharp. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/James Sorenson

Another beautiful view of the foothills of Mount Sharp as seen recently by the Curiosity rover. The rover is continuing to drive closer to these mesas, buttes and canyons. Image processing by James Sorenson. The full-resolution version is available here.

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Image Gallery: Martian ‘spoons’ and ‘needles’

"Spoon" #1 seen by Curiosity on sol 1089. Photo Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

“Spoon” #1 seen by Curiosity on sol 1089. Photo Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

Wind-eroded rocks on Mars can take many different forms, sometimes resembling common earthly objects. Some good new examples include these long, thin slivers of rock which look like “spoons” and “needles,” seen by the Curiosity rover recently on sols 1089 and 1087. These fragile formations are easier to form in Mars’ weaker gravity and thinner atmosphere and can last much longer than they would on Earth – a unique form of Martian “artwork.”

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Curiosity rover continues journey up Mount Sharp after science observations at ‘Marias Pass’

New low-angle “selfie” of the Curiosity rover taken while it was in Marias Pass, consisting of multiple images stitched together. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

New low-angle “selfie” of the Curiosity rover taken while it was in Marias Pass, consisting of multiple images stitched together. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

After extensive investigations of rock layers in Marias Pass, a shallow valley near the base of Mount Sharp, the Curiosity rover is now heading southwest again, to continue gradually climbing the lower slopes of the mountain. Marias Pass is a region with rocks and ground which contain high levels of silica and hydrogen, more evidence that there used to be a lot more water here than there is now.

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Image Gallery: new views of Mount Sharp foothills

Foothills on Mount Sharp. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS/Lars (@LarsTheWanderer)

Foothills on Mount Sharp. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS/Lars (@LarsTheWanderer)

There are a couple new views of the foothills on Mount Sharp from the Curiosity rover, and they are beautiful. Many layers, mesas and buttes are visible, reminiscent of the American southwest. Curiosity will keep getting closer in the weeks and months ahead. Image processing by Lars (@LarsTheWanderer).

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